Heart attack or myocardial infarction (MI). Myo means’ muscle ‘ and cardial means’ heart’ .Infarction refers to death of a tissue because of lack of blood supply. Detecting heart attacks can be tricky as sometimes the presenting signs and symptoms can be atypical which can be hard to recognise and lead to critical loss of time & tissue.



  • Coronary artery disease or narrow arteries.
  • Atherosclerosis or fatty deposits.
  • Use of tobacco or elicit drugs like cocaine can cause life threatening spasms
Infections with Covid-19 may also damage the heart in ways that it can result in a heart attack.


  • Heavy pressure or pain in the chest .
  • Angina can persist even at rest and is more severe. Nausea ,vomiting ,shortness of breath.
  • Weakness, dizziness, fainting or profuse sweating. Feeling of impending doom.
  • Heartburn like feeling.
  • Silent attacks are also common especially in diabetics.

Risk Factors

There are many which are modifiable and others are non-modifiable

These include :
  • Age men >45 and women >55 years.
  • Tobacco -active and passive smoking both.
  • High blood pressure can damage the arteries.
  • High blood cholesterol or triglycerides levels lead to plaque build up and narrowing of the arteries.
  • Obesity -is linked to high blood cholesterol levels, high triglycerides, high blood pressure and diabetes.
  • Losing 10% of body weight can lower the risk.
  • Uncontrolled blood sugar levels increase the risk Metabolic syndrome-having metabolic syndrome makes you twice as likely to develop heart disease.
  • Family history -if any sibling ,parents or grandparents have had early heart attack (age 55 for males and 65 for females), then you are at an increased risk.
  • Lack of physical activity.
  • Stress
  • Elicit drug abuse ,li>History of preeclampsia
  • Autoimmune conditions


  • Abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia)
  • Heart failure
  • Sudden cardiac arrest

Prevention And Treatment

The key to prevention is to reduce the risk factors .These include :
  • Lifestyle modifications- they play a very important part like diet ,exercise ,controlling BP, stress, diabetes etc in order to lead a disease free life. We work with you and simplify each category in lifestyle modification by our multiprong approach.
  • Medical management as prescribed by the cardiologist.

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